Countries are providing incentives to develop new hydrogen markets, with the U.S. leading the way on the scale of government funding available to the emerging industry. Yet there are still questions about how hydrogen can be produced cleanly at scale, and how new end-user markets will develop, creating uncertainties about the hydrogen business’ pace of growth and ultimate size. Where will supply come from? Which use case segments are most promising for hydrogen demand? Where can hydrogen compete with traditional fuels without government support?