Many world regions face increasing pressures from global and regional changes in climate, population growth, urban-area expansion, and the socio-economic impacts of fossil-based development. One of the global community’s most significant contemporary challenges is the need to satisfy growing energy demand while simultaneously achieving very significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. Massive scaling is required for low-carbon technologies to make a substantial contribution to future global energy needs. Transition risks arise from shifts in the political, technological, social, and economic landscape that are likely to occur during the transition to a low-carbon economy. This session examines barriers for deployment of low-carbon energy and explores opportunities to accelerate decarbonization efforts.