Jeffrey Thamsanqa Radebe is South Africa's longest continuously serving cabinet member, having been part of every national administration since 1994 and under every post-apartheid President. Mr. Radebe served as Minister of Public Works under Nelson Mandela. Under the leadership of Thabo Mbeki, he served as Minister of Public Enterprises and was appointed acting Minister of Health. Under President Jacob Zuma he served as Minister of Transport and Minister of Constitutional and Justice Development, this was followed by a term as Minister in the Presidency. Mr Radebe's most recent ministerial appointment was as Minister of energy under Cyril Ramaphosa. Mr Radebe has also served as Acting President of South Africa. Jeffrey Thamsanqa Radebe holds a B.Jur degree from the University of Zululandan, LLM in international Law from the Karl Marx University in Leipzig and was awarded an Honorary Doctorate in Humane Letters by the Chicago State University. A key figure in South Africa's political transition Radebe joined the African National Congress (ANC) in 1976. After an unsuccessful secret mission in 1986, Radebe was arrested, and was convicted. He was sentenced to a 10-year imprisonment on Robben Island. After a 12-day hunger strike, Radebe was released from prison in 1990.