Roadmaps to achieve net zero are placing great focus on supply chains. Technologies central to the transition require much more critical minerals than conventional energy sources, yet governments and industry have expressed alarm about whether there will be sufficient mineral supply to move from a fuel-intensive to a mineral-intensive energy system. Beyond sourcing, pandemic lockdowns and the war in Ukraine have underscored the risks when things go wrong. Technology failures, commercial delays, new geopolitical crises and broken supply chains are inevitable realities going forward. How will supply chains adjust and scale and what are the industry’s contingency plans for disruption? Is globalization giving way to regionalization?