Advanced biofuels are beginning to make in-roads into the transportation fuels market due to decarbonization policies and technology. Renewable diesel and jet fuel are the leading fuels that rely on low-carbon bio-oils—such as used cooking oil, fats, and tallow—and existing technologies. However, it is unlikely that these fuels and feedstocks alone can meet the targets of existing and emerging policies. Other feedstocks will be needed. What are likely feedstocks for advanced biofuels? What is the status of processing technologies to produce large amounts of biofuels from these feedstocks? What enabling technologies are needed? Can advanced biofuels and feedstocks compete with the life cycle and economics of non-liquid transport fuels?