As the International Maritime Organization makes headway defining steps for the 2020 bunker fuel sulfur specification change, many questions still remain. The number of ship scrubbers installed, availability of new low-sulfur fuels in all ports, and the ability of new formulations to meet engine requirements are only some of the industry concerns. How will compliance be enforced and by whom? And can the market provide sufficient volumes around the globe? Refiners are seeking solutions, with new projects and conversion upgrades, but will excess residual streams need to be absorbed by inland markets? Also, what role does the GHG rule play in the ship owner’s strategy?