Next-generation biofuels continue to be the holy grail of the renewables sector. Despite broad political support for producing transportation fuels and reducing GHG by using waste products, progress has been patchy, and today there is still no large-scale plant in operation. Recently, the outlook for the sector has improved as Asian companies join the well-established market players in Europe and the Americas. What is the current state of play in NextGen biofuels? What are the stumbling blocks to market maturity? What will drive growth in the future? Can NextGen’s life cycle and economics beat conventional biofuels’?