Rising oil prices coupled with dire regulatory reports on global warming have reinvigorated interest in biofuels as a low carbon fuel. What is the status of second generation biofuels technology and the scaleup possibilities? Can biofuels be looked at as a mature technology option? How can biofuels targets be met, which appear more ambitious at the current pace of scale up? How do socio-political dimensions add to the value of biofuels as a cleaner fuel choice?