Africa is rising—both as a region and as individual countries—buoyed by abundant natural resources and population and by GDP growth rates among the highest in the world. Still the continent’s growth outlook is weighed down by burdens from the past and present, including low energy and commodity prices; dynamic energy markets; concerns about geopolitics, sustainability, and security; and technological disruption. How are Africa’s energy leaders addressing, in the short and long term, threats to economic development? Where are the opportunities? What is the right balance between national action, regional collaboration, and international cooperation? For countries whose economies are dependent on fossil fuels and where energy poverty is endemic, what is “sustainable” and how will the energy transition progress?