Among the Sustainable Development Goals adopted in 2015 by all 193 United Nations member states was “universal access to affordable, reliable, and modern energy services by 2030.” For decades, however, numerous institutions have attempted to solve the issue of energy access across sub-Saharan Africa, India, and developing Asia, yet few have seen progress. The situation in Africa is particularly intractable; in 2030 the region is projected to still account for 90% of the global population without electricity access. Which approaches to ensuring energy access have worked—and which haven’t? How should governments, the private sector, and development organizations collaborate while avoiding the creation of detrimental dependencies on foreign aid and international debt? To what extent should environmental considerations be weighed? What technologies and business models can be gainfully adopted to accelerate energy access?