The prospects of hydrogen fuel cell applications in the light-duty automotive sector remain uncertain. Fuel cell costs are falling and performance increasing, yet not as rapidly as battery technology. Are these electric vehicle types mutually exclusive and in competition, or is there a path of co-existence? Is there a natural domain for each application, centered on vehicle segments and/or geography? How influential is the regulatory framework to each solution? Are policy makers technology neutral, or do they favor one type of EV over another? How could the advent of lifecycle/well-to-wheel–based CO2 regulation influence the trajectory of each technology option?