Although batteries and electric motors are expected to play a major role in the future, there is a wide spectrum of views on how fast the transition from Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) to EVs might be. New technological breakthroughs such as “homogeneous charge compression ignition” may improve ICE efficiency by 20-30%. How will these ICE improvements affect competitiveness with electric vehicles? Could cost parity be delayed by new technology and new business models? How will this impact the penetration of EV and the composition of the car fleet of the future?