India is promoting a gas-based economy and increasing the share of natural gas in its energy base from 6.2% to 15% by 2030. Investments are planned for building terminals, pipelines, and city gas infrastructure. The size of the Indian gas market may range from US$150 to US$250 billion over a decade, potentially reaching 70% of India’s population with natural gas infrastructure spreading to 50% of its land. Within midstream, pipelines are being built and funding options are available to incentivize gas pipelines to new areas. How can natural gas be a key tool to achieve India’s challenge of energy security and energy sustainability? What incentives should government provide to gas-based power plants? How can gas-based thermal power plants play a balancing role in infusing 450 GW of renewable capacity by 2030? What carbon cost mechanism should be added to the cost of coal-powered generation? What are global best regulatory and market development practices to grow the gas market?