Cities will drive the future as they become the critical component of the human landscape, with an estimated two-thirds of the world’s population living in cities by 2050. The challenges of infrastructure, services, and development—combined with escalating pressures from changes in climate, demographics and growth – impact all cities, and especially “energy cities,” those that have relied upon traditional oil and gas industries for much of their economic development. One of the most powerful solutions will be innovation—around all these challenges, and around their core economic structure. How do cities effectively support innovation? How do they attract, and retain, the resources—talent, investment, research, industry—that make innovation real?