Technology and innovation continue to be the saving grace for oil and gas companies as they seek to assure shareholders of their ability to improve efficiency and embrace the opportunities emerging from growing data resources, advances in computing power, sensors, advanced analytics, and AI. Although strides have been made to reduce structural costs in both conventional upstream and unconventional projects, costs continue to grow. How will costs impact the viability of projects? How many innovations have truly reduced costs? How much more can innovation reduce project and operating costs? What interplay is needed among digital technologies, traditional E&P technologies, and changes in operational and organizational models to realize further gains?