There has been significant drop in oil/gas upstream investments since 2014. Although cost have continued to fall, yet there is concern about future supply gaps emerging. At the same time, numerous forecasts are predicting plateauing of oil demand although there is a wide range in terms of the time when this will happen. Many investors are pushing for faster move out of fossil fuels—resulting in some financial companies slowing/stopping oil/gas investments even though there are no economic substitutes for oil in many sectors such as heavy-duty transportation and petrochemicals. What is the case to continue to invest in oil/gas? Is there still need to explore for more oil and gas? What will be the future costs and emission footprint to ensure profitability and reduce risks of stranded assets?