The energy transition is pressuring downstream oil companies to simultaneously reduce emissions and compete in a slowing—and perhaps declining—product demand market. Across the globe, climate-related policies, regulations, and societal pressures are seeking to reduce carbon emissions from transportation fuels and the oil supply chain. How are environmental regulations impacting refining profitability and the outlook for long-term investments? What are the right strategies—such as more petrochemical integration, advanced biofuels investments, retail market integration—to address expected market changes? How are consumers expected to respond to the cost of new lower-carbon fuels needed for an energy transition?