Agricultural technology and practices continue to evolve, resulting in lower GHG emissions in the field and the biofuels processing plant. Agriculture could be the source of significant GHG reductions with new, emerging technologies and policy-related incentives provided directly to growers. What are the key issues for on-farm GHG emissions? Can yields continue to increase without an increase in emissions? What are the likely new crops—energy crops or advanced conventional crops—to meet biofuels demand? What are the major potential sources and volume of GHG reductions in agriculture? How low can the carbon intensity of conventional crops/biofuels go? What are the barriers that prevent the uptake of technologies and practices and how can they be overcome?