The future for global crude oil supply faces the most challenges and uncertainty since the mid-1980s. Competitive oil and gas supplies are influenced by volume, quality, and cost of supply of remaining resources; investment behavior; and concerns about demand destruction or “peak oil” in a policy environment focused on promoting renewable technologies. In a lower oil or gas demand scenario, not all “barrels” will attract investment or find a market. The most competitive “barrels” will be those that offer the lowest cost, lowest emission, shortest cycle time, and most capital commitment flexibility. What other factors will influence supply competitiveness? Are there enough competitive E&P industry investment opportunities? Will the focus on project design, applications of digital and other technologies, efficiencies in the supply chain, and concentrated portfolios create more competitive supply?