As the Indian democracy transitions from a traditionally socialist economy to a more urbanized, service sector– and market-based energy and political economy, key questions are raised on the fuel mix, the role of national champions, and the role of partnerships with the international companies—especially for technology and the regulatory framework that supports these choices. What affordable fuel mix is optimal, and should the market or government policy decide? To decrease pollution in Indian cities, how will the fuel mix choices need to change, especially in the power and transport sectors, where fossil fuels now dominate? How can national champions leverage their customer reach in the energy sector to bring the best technologies to consumers? Once consensus is achieved on the medium- and long-term fuel mix, what are the critical parameters of a market- and customer-supportive regulatory framework?