At the beginning of the century, Colombia experienced a steep decline in reserves. The country and its national oil company, Ecopetrol, faced the specter of oil imports amid a difficult national security situation and the departure of foreign operators. Ecopetrol had two Llanos Basin fields that produced heavy and extra-heavy oil grades, which were difficult and expensive to extract, dehydrate, transport, and refine. However, by implementing a technology plan, Ecopetrol increased field production from 15,000 bd to over 200,000 bd, incorporating high-conversion refining capabilities. Ecopetrol’s R&D center developed over 15 proprietary technologies that replaced inefficient, conventional processing technologies; enabled the development of stranded assets; and reduced energy consumption and GHG emissions. These proprietary technologies led Ecopetrol to become a leading player in processing heavy and extra-heavy oil and to rebound successfully following the 2015 oil crisis.