India is experiencing a period of rapid growth on the path to being the world’s third largest economy within the next 10–15 years. All forms of energy will be needed to provide a basis for growth that is market based and climate sensitive. With critical choices needed on the nature of solutions by sector, there will be trade-offs, both short- and long term, of policy objectives that are key at a varying pace and during certain periods based on external realities, including geopolitics of global energy systems. Given geopolitics is a key factor in the global energy transition, 2023 is a critical year with India taking on the leadership of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization and the World Association of Investment Promotion Agencies. Lead roles in these key global groups represents India’s role in shaping its own current and future role in the global economy and influencing the role of other emerging markets that have similar economic and energy issues.