To meet emissions reduction targets and the electrification of the economy, technologies will need to be deployed over the next decades at a pace and scale far beyond anything previously imagined or experienced. This will require significant amounts of minerals to be brought to the market, putting unprecedent pressure on the mining industry. How can the mining industry scale up in a sustainable way? What changes are required to accelerate permitting processes? What role will recycling play in providing a local supply of material?