The deployment of critical infrastructure to meet the world’s growing energy needs is creating a more sophisticated and interconnected energy system that is exposed to greater cyber risks. New supply technologies are increasing the range of potential targets. Distributed energy resources are multiplying the digital attack surface. In a turbulent geopolitical landscape of global rivalries and conflict, adversaries are expanding their cyber capabilities and means to subvert systems. How are government and industry thinking through the cyber component of energy security? What measures are they taking to increase resilience and build additional layers of protection for critical infrastructure? How is the toolkit of threat responses evolving?