While demand for thermal coal continues to grow in the Pacific Market, its role in the energy transition is perhaps most intriguing on the other side of the world. The cost of abandoning coal is proving to be expensive, both in pure economic terms and in energy resilience. A robust discussion will center on net-zero ambitions, the challenges of retiring and replacing coal, and the need to support sufficient production and infrastructure to bridge the gap to a new fuel mix. What challenges face governments, investors, coal producers, and infrastructure providers? What is a viable, secure path during the energy transition?